Let’s face it - we are all guilty of enjoying a sugary treat occasionally, but here’s some news that may make you think twice about picking up that chocolate bar next time. Sugar is one of the worst offenders for ageing your skin. This is due to a process called glycation. Although there are many other factors including lifestyle, stress and environment, the negative impact sugar can have on your skin can sometimes be forgotten. Here our skin experts explain the process of glycation and reveal some of the negative effects sugar can have on your skin.
What is glycation?
Glycation is a reaction that occurs in the body where sugar molecules, such as glucose or fructose, bond with protein molecules to form a new, differently shaped compound. These new substances are known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and are responsible for many of the negative effects of glycation.
Collagen, elastin and skin structure
Glycation’s impact on the skin is multi-fold, and the process contributes to numerous signs of skin ageing. It changes structural elements in the skin, including damaging collagen and elastin. Dr Gaby Prinsloo, medical director explains why these substances are vital to healthy, youthful-looking skin.
“Collagen and elastin are two structural proteins within the matrix of the dermis. There are several different types of collagens, and they create structure for the connective tissue network. Collagen creates a fibrous network of connections between different cells, giving skin structure and scaffolding.”
Glycation changes the shape of collagen molecules to effectively create a new substance. As these molecules accumulate over time, the structure of the skin becomes disrupted, and collagen and elastin become stiff.
“Collagen and elastin provide structure, strength and elasticity,” explains Dr Gaby.“ Therefore, when they are damaged, our skin loses resilience, and we notice wrinkles and sagging skin”.
Impaired barrier function
A healthy skin barrier is crucial for maintaining hydration in the skin and regulating the substances that can pass into the body. The impact of glycation on the epidermis contributes to impaired barrier function, leading to sensitive, irritated or dry skin. Additionally, skin is not able to repair itself as quickly from any injury.
Oxidative stress contributes to and accelerates a host of skin ageing including contributing to fine lines and wrinkles.
At the same time, oxidative stress accelerates the rate of glycation by speeding up the early part of the glycation reaction. With more glycation occurring, modified collagen and elastin molecules accumulate more quickly, speeding up structural decline to the skin.
Increased oxidative stress is also closely correlated to an increase in inflammation which can lead to inflame aging in the skin and make skin concerns such as problem-skin worse.
How to tackle glycation
Lifestyle and diet play an essential role to help offset the impacts of glycation. The more sugar molecules there are in the body, the more likely glycation is to occur. The first step to improve this process is cutting down the amount of sugar in your diet. Excess amounts of sugar can impact our energy levels, weight management and cause bloating and mood fluctuations.
The NHS recommends that adults should have no more than 30g of “free sugars” a day.Look for the sugar content on the label. Avoid foods that contain high amounts of sugar such as:
- Fizzy drinks
The good news is there are various ingredients that can be incorporated into your oral skincare regime to help support collagen formation.
Collagen co factors
The impact of glycation on skin collagen means supporting this area of the skin is key for healthy-looking skin. Collagen co factors can help build resilient collagen including vitamin C, zinc, phytonutrients, and MSM, they should all be a priority when looking to support your collagen production* and achieve youthful-looking skin.
It’s evident that excess sugar can have a negative impact to your skin including damaging your collagen, elastin and structure, disrupting your skin barrier and making fine lines and wrinkles more visible. For overall benefit to the skin, you should reduce your sugar intake and have no more than 30g of free sugars a day. As well as incorporating collagen co-factors including vitamin C, zinc, phytonutrients, and MSM in your oral skincare regime for resilient collagen* and an overall youthful complexion.
*Vitamin C contributes to the normal function of collagen production
- The role of glycation in the pathogenesis of aging and its prevention through herbal products and physical exercise. National Library of Medicine. Chan-Sik Kim, Sok Park and Junghyun Kim. September 2017.
- The effects of the Maillard reaction on the physical properties and cell interactions of collagen. National Library of Medicine. Avery, N C, and A J Bailey. September 2006.
- The Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) on Dermal Wound Healing and Scar Formation: A Systematic Review. National Library of Medicine. Van Putte, Lennert. January. 2016.
- Acceleration of protein glycation by oxidative stress and comparative role of antioxidant and protein glycation inhibitor. National Library of Medicine.Bavkar. Lennert Van Putte, Sofie De Schrijver, Peter Moortgat. December 2016.
- Food Fact Sheet. The Association of UK Dietitians. NHS.